Freitag, 11. Januar 2019

World Map of Languages

This language map is another appendix to my earlier essay and the family tree of languages. It doesn't show single languages however (that would be impossible, as there are 6000-7000 languages, and just mapping official language would be to simplified), but language families or language phyla instead. The colours imply a possible relation on a lower level, called macrofamilies. However, these are highly speculative.

As the map shows, Indo-European languages are spoken in large parts of our planet. Other important language families include the Niger-Congo, Sino-Tibetan, Afroasiatic, and Austronesian languages. The largest degree of diversity is found in New Guinea, where linguists have found a large number of isolated languages or small language families, as well as the Trans-New Guinea phylum with an astounding number of different languages as well.

Download/Fullsize (external link)

If you find this interesting you may also like this family tree of languages, which also includes some extinct language families.

Main (proposed) language families included in the map:

  • Proposed Nostratic macrofamily
    • Indo-European (English, German, Dutch, Afrikaans, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Polish, Bulgarian, Swedish, Hindi, Urdu, Marathi, Punjabi, Bengali, Persian, ...) 
    • Uralic (Finnish, Hungarian, ...)
    • Yukaghiric
    • Turkic (Turkish, ...)
    • Mongolic (Mongolian, ...)
    • Tungusic
    • Koreanic (Korean)
    • Japonic (Japanese)
    • Ainu-Emishi
    • Nivkh
    • Chukotko-Kamtchatkan
    • Eskimo-Aleut
    • Dravidian (Tamil, Telugu, ...)
    • Kartvelian (Georgian, ...)
    • Afroasiatic (Arabic, Amharic, Somali, Hebrew, ...)
  • Proposed Dene-Caucasian macrofamily
    • Vasconic (Basque)
    • Abkhaso-Adygeian
    • Nakho-Dagestanian
    • Burushaski
    • Yeniseian
    • Na-Dene
    • Nahali
    • Kusunda
    • Sino-Tibetan (Chinese, Burmese, ...)
    • possibly some less researched languages such as Greater Siangic, Kho-Bwa, Miji, Hruso and Miju
  • Proposed Austric macrofamily
    • Tai-Kadai (Thai, Lao, ...)
    • Austroasiatic (Vietnamese, Khmer, ...)
    • Hmong-Mien
    • Austronesian (Malay/Indonesian, Filipino, ...)
  • Proposed Amerindian macrofamily
    • Almosan-Keresiouan
    • Penutian-Hokan
    • Central Amerindian
    • Andean
    • Chibchan-Paezan
    • Equatorial-Tucanoan
    • Ge-Pano-Carib
  • Proposed Khoisan macrofamily
    • Khoe-Kwadi
    • Kx'a
    • Tuu
    • Sandawe
  • Proposed Congo-Saharan macrofamily
    • Niger-Congo
    • Nilo-Saharan
    • possibly Laal
  • Indo-Pacific
    • South Andamanese
    • Trans-New Guinea
    • about 40 other language families of New Guinea
    • possibly Shompen
  • Australian
    • Pama-Nyungan
    • about 17 other language families of Australia
  • Isolated languages without allocation to macrofamily (yet)
    • Hadza
    • Bangime
    • Jalaa

1 Kommentar:

  1. Sorry, but it seems your data is flawed. I can speak for Brazil, for instance: you colored a whole area as orange (Equatorial-Tucanoan) within and around the state of Rondonia, as if it was the dominant language family there. But it isn't. My wife is from there, and I can tell you these Amerindian languages are only spoken in tiny pockets (federal native peoples reserves) in communities with dozens, less than a hundred individuals. And, even there, often even native languages are used as a second language, as many younger generation natives are raised speaking Portuguese as their mother tongue. I cannot judge the whole of the map, but this suggests you'd better double-check your data sources.