Sonntag, 6. Januar 2019

Value-Based Classification of Political Ideologies

In this post, I have presented a classification system for political parties in the Europe of today. In short, it included the 3 classical blocs (Socialist, Conservative, Liberal), but added an axis of identitarian vs. anti-identitarian, which as I explained is essentially the modern meaning of right-wing and left-wing in the European context.

This "political circle" shows a more general classification of political ideologies. I identified four major values: equality and social justice, freedom and individuality, tradition and reaction, as well as strength and health. These correspond approximately to the four big ideologies of socialism, liberalism, conservatism, and nationalism: all of those emerging in the context of the French revolution and competing in the West until liberalism "wins" in 1990 (after the world wars and the cold war).

The centre of the circle represents the politically moderate forces, while the outside represents various extreme ideologies. For example, on the end of the "strength" axis you'll find National Socialism (anti-liberal, anti-communist, progressive/anti-traditional) with its militaristic inclination and the ideas of racial hygiene and social darwinism. On the end of the "equality" axis you'll find Marxist Communism (anti-liberal, anti-national, progressive/anti-traditional) with the basic idea that there should be no classes or nations anymore. Between them, you'll find Juche (the North Korean ideology which is a mix of communism and nationalism, including racial supremacism), Strasserism (the left-wing, more socialist wing of the early NSDAP), and Stalinism (the more nationalist and militaristic version of Marxism). The more moderate version of the strength-equality combination would be the Swedish folkhemmet, which included social democracy and the welfare state, but also nationalism and euthanasia.

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