Donnerstag, 31. Januar 2019

Welcome

Welcome to my blog. I am using it to post infographics, lists, maps, and other content I created.

In the past I have created the following:
  • Alternative History maps
  • World maps of the present
  • Family trees on various topics such as languages or religions
  • Family Trees of operating systems and other software
  • Comparison tables
The topics of my graphics include the humanities (lingustics, history, politics etc.) and also, as a completely unrelated area, software and technology.

Some of my graphics have been posted on the web already (e.g. AlternateHistory.com, 4chan, Wikipedia), while some others leave my harddisk for the very first time.

I have collected some of my graphics (but not all) in this folder, which may appear more accessible than this blog:

COLLECTION OF MY RECENT CREATIONS (Dropbox)


Table of Contents:

Topic 1: Identities


Topic 2: Software

Topic 3: Alternative History Maps


Other stuff


Alphonse

Samstag, 12. Januar 2019

Comparison of Web Browsers (2020 update)


2020 Update:

This comparison compares the most popular cross-platform (desktop and mobile) browsers and their features. Until 2016, there were the "Big 5" browsers (Firefox, IE/Edge, Chrome, Opera, and Safari), but since then the market has become more fragmented with new browsers such as Brave and Vivaldi becoming more popular. I have decided to limit my test to these 7 browsers as they are both available on PCs and on phones (unlike for example Pale Moon, which stopped developing its mobile version), and also have decided against including "regional" browsers such as Yandex Browser (Russia), Naver Whale (Korea) or the Chinese browsers (Baidu, 360, Sogou, QQ, ...).

The result of the comparison is less clear than last time. In terms of pure features, Vivaldi, Opera and Firefox are at the top of list, followed by Edge and Brave, with Chrome and Safari being the most "bare-bones" and least customizable browsers. Ironically, the "worst" browsers have the highest market shares, thanks to their being preinstalled on iOS and Android.

Please let me know if there are any mistakes. I am also aiming to update this sheet more regularly.



Download/Fullsize


Browsers included in this comparison:
  • Firefox
    • Desktop version
    • Android: new Firefox Preview (Fenix) + old Firefox (Fennec), ignored Firefox Focus
    • iOS: 'proper' Firefox, ignored Firefox Focus
  • Safari
    • Desktop version
    • iOS version
  • Chrome/Chromium
    • Desktop version
    • Android version
    • iOS version
  • Edge
    • Desktop version: new Chromium based Edge + old IE-based Edge + Internet Explorer 11
    • Android version
    • iOS version
  • Opera
    • Desktop version: normal version, Opera GX ignored, also compared to old Presto-based version (Opera 12)
    • Android: 'proper' Opera, ignored Opera Mini and Opera Touch
    • iOS: new Opera Touch + old Opera Mini
  • Vivaldi
    • Desktop version
    • Android version
  • Brave
    • Desktop version
    • Android version
    • iOS version

Browsers not included for now:
  • Using Blink/V8 engine (Chromium-based): Dissenter, Falkon, Naver Whale, Otter Browser, Samsung Browser, ungoogled-chromium, Yandex Browser, 360 Secure Browser, Baidu Browser, CM Browser, Maxthon, QQ Browser, Sogou Browser, UC Browser, ...
  • Using WebKit/Nitro engine (Safari-based): GNOME Web, Midori, ...
  • Using Gecko/SpiderMonkey engine (Firefox-based): GNU IceCat, Seamonkey, Tor Browser, Waterfox, ...
  • Other browers, e.g. Pale Moon (using Goanna engine) or NetSurf (using Hubbub engine)


Old post from 2015 below:

In this post I have attached a comparison of the 5 main web browers: Google Chrome, Apple Safari, Mozilla Firefox, Microsoft Edge, and Opera.

I have included both the desktop version and the mobile version to compare the features. Although I am personally a fan of Opera, Firefox wins in the end as the browser with the most features. Second place goes to Opera, followed by Chrome and Edge. Safari is the worst browser in terms of features, both on Mac OS X and on mobile devices (iOS).

If you spot any errors (or any new features were created), please leave a comment.



Download/Fullsize (external link)


Operating Systems: An (Almost) Complete Timeline and Family Tree

In this post you'll find a family tree and timeline of operating systems. I have tried to include all operating systems, no matter how old or obscure. Of course, a complete list is virtually impossible, as there is no way to catalogue all the tiny hobby and embedded systems that may exist somewhere.

Please also note that I only included a few selected Linux/BSD/Solaris distributions (it is arguable whether these should count as an OS on their own or not).

Currently, the family tree includes between 800 and 900 different operating systems.

Download as PNG 
Download as PNG - Mirror (GDrive)
Download as PNG - Mirror 2 (Imgur)
(external link, 4 MB)
Download as SVG (external link)



If anyone would like to make corrections, please feel tell me. The source files are here. I used Gnuclad to compile the timeline.

The operating system in this picture include:
(only original/first names, later renamings are shown in the graph but not in the list)

  • Unix
    • 3BSD
    • 4.4BSD
    • A/UX [Apple]
    • AIX [IBM]
    • Amiga Unix [Amiga]
    • AOS [IBM]
    • Atari Unix [Atari]
    • audioOS [Apple]
    • BKUNIX
    • BRL Unix
    • BSD
    • BSD Net/1 [Acorn]
    • BSD Net/2
    • BSD/OS
    • CB UNIX
    • CellOS [Sony Playstation 3]
    • Concentrix [Alliant]
    • ConvexOS [Convex]
    • COSIX [CS&S]
    • CTIX [Convergent]
    • CXOs [Cray]
    • Darwin [Apple]
    • DC/OSx [Pyramid]
    • DEC OSF/1 [DEC]
    • Dell Unix [Dell]
    • DG/UX [Data General]
    • DragonFlyBSD
    • Dynix [Sequent Computer Systems]
    • Eurix/Generics Unix [Generics]
    • FreeBSD
    • Genix [National Semiconductor]
    • GhostBSD
    • GNU/Hurd
    • HeliOS [Perihelion]
    • HEP-UPX [Denelcor]
    • Hitachi OSF/1-MJ [Hitachi]
    • HI-UX [Hitachi]
    • HP OSF/1 [HP]
    • HPBSD [HP]
    • HP-UX [HP]
    • Idris [Whitesmiths]
    • Illumos
    • iOS [Apple]
    • IRIS GL2 [SGI]
    • IRIX [SGI]
    • IS/1 [Interactive]
    • JunOS [Juniper]
    • Lites
    • LSX
    • Mac OS X Server 10 [Apple]
    • Mach (kernel)
    • Mach386 [mt Xinu]
    • MachTen [Tenon]
    • MacMach
    • macOS X [Apple]
    • MAXION/OS [Concurrent]
    • MERT
    • Micronix [Morrow]
    • Microport Unix
    • MidnightBSD
    • Mini Unix
    • MkLinux
    • Monterey
    • more/BSD [mt Xinu]
    • MP-RAS Unix [NCR]
    • Munix [Generics]
    • NDIX [Norsk Data]
    • NetBSD
    • News-OS [Sony]
    • NeXTSTEP [NeXT Computer]
    • NonStop-UX [HP]
    • OpenBSD
    • OpenDarwin
    • OpenIndiana
    • OpenSolaris
    • OS/MP [Solbourne]
    • OSF/1
    • OSF/1 AD [Locus Computing]
    • Paragon OSF/1 [Paragon]
    • PC-BSD [iXsystems]
    • PC-IX [Interactive Systems Corp]
    • PWB/Unix
    • Real Time UNIX [Concurrent]
    • RetroBSD
    • Rhapsody
    • RISC Unix [Acorn]
    • RISC/OS [MIPS]
    • RT PC AOS [IBM]
    • Sinix [Siemens]
    • SmartOS
    • Solaris [Sun]
    • SPIX [Bull Computers]
    • SPP-UX [Convex]
    • SunOS [Sun]
    • SUPER-UX [NEC]
    • TI System V [Texas Instruments]
    • TNIX [Tektronix]
    • Trusted IRIX/B [SGI]
    • Trusted Solaris [Sun]
    • Trusted Xenix [SCO]
    • TS
    • tvOS [Apple]
    • UCLA Locus
    • UCLA Secure Unix
    • Ultrix 32M [DEC]
    • UMAX 4.3 [Encore]
    • Unicos MAX [Cray]
    • Unicos/mk [Cray]
    • Unicos/mp [Cray]
    • UNICS [AT&T/Bell Labs]
    • UniPlus System V [UniSoft]
    • UNIX 32V
    • UNIX System III [AT&T]
    • Unix/NS [NCR]
    • UNSW
    • USG
    • UTEK [Tektronix]
    • UTS [Amdahl]
    • UTS/M [Fujitsu]
    • UTX/32(S) [Gould]
    • UXP/DS [Fujitsu]
    • V/386
    • V7M [DEC]
    • Venix [VenturCom]
    • watchOS [Apple]
    • WEGA [East Germany]
    • Xenix [Microsoft]
    • xMach
  • Unixoid but not genetic Unix
    • 9atom
    • 9front
    • ABCenix [Luxor]
    • AFROS (based on EmuTOS)
    • ANALIX
    • BlackBerry 10 [BlackBerry]
    • Blackberry PlayBook OS [RIM]
    • C Executive [JMI Software]
    • Chorus [Chorus Systemes]
    • Coherent [MWC]
    • Cromix [Cromemco]
    • Data ONTAP [NetApp]
    • DCC-IX
    • Digix [Digirede]
    • DNIX [Dataindustrier]
    • Domain/OS [Apollo]
    • DRM System [NV Philips]
    • EDIX
    • GNO/ME [Procyon]
    • Harvey OS
    • Inferno
    • IOS-XR [Cisco]
    • LUnix
    • LynxOS
    • MeikOS [Meiko Scientific]
    • MERLIN [Silicon Valley Software]
    • MINIX
    • Minix-VMD
    • MiNT/MultiTOS
    • MSS
    • Mulplix
    • Multics
    • NachOS
    • Oasis [Phase One Systems]
    • OS 9 [Microware]
    • OSv [Clodius Systems]
    • Pintos
    • Plan 9 [AT&T/Bell Labs]
    • Plurix
    • Punix
    • QNX Neutrino [QNX Software]
    • QUNIX [QNX Software]
    • REAL
    • Redox OS
    • SIDIX
    • Sortix
    • SOX [Cobra Tecnologia]
    • Sprite
    • System/88 OS [IBM]
    • TC/IX [Control Data]
    • Thix
    • Thoroughbred/OS [Omega]
    • TUNIS
    • UNOS [Charles River Data Systems]
    • USIX [System Six]
    • UZIX
    • VirtualLogix C5 [Jaluna]
    • VMEexec [Motorola]
    • VOS [Stratus Technologies]
    • VSTa
    • XDI [Crescendo Communications]
    • Xinu
    • Unixoid system based on DOS-like systems
      • INOS [Introl]
      • PCUNIX/PCNX [Wendin]
      • UniFLEX [TSC]
    • Linux
      • Android [Google]
      • Arch Linux
      • Bada [Samsung]
      • CentOS
      • ChromeOS [Google]
      • CyanogenMod
      • Debian GNU/Linux
      • Enoch Linux
      • Fedora Core
      • Firefox OS [Mozilla]
      • KaiOS [KaiOS Technologies]
      • KDE Neon
      • Linux Mint
      • Mageia Linux
      • Mandrake Linux [MandrakeSoft]
      • MeeGo
      • mer
      • My Home Screen [Panasonic]
      • OS2005 [Nokia]
      • Palm webOS [Palm]
      • PCLinuxOS
      • Red Hat Linux [Red Hat]
      • Sailfish OS [Jolla]
      • Slackware Linux
      • SuSE Linux [SuSE]
      • SUSE Linux Enterprise [SuSE]
      • Tizen [Samsung]
      • Ubuntu [Canonical]
      • Ubuntu Touch [Canonical]
  • Non-Unix systems that were superseded by a unixoid version with the same name
    • BlackBerry OS [RIM]
    • System [Apple]
  • CP/M-like
    • 4860 OS [IBM]
    • Apple CP/M [Apple]
    • BCU880 [Robotron]
    • CCI Multiuser DOS [Concurrent Controls]
    • Compaq DOS [Compaq]
    • Concurrent CP/M-68k [Digital Research]
    • Concurrent CPM-80 [Digital Research]
    • COS-PSA [Robotron]
    • CP/A [Robotron]
    • CP/K [Robotron]
    • CP/KC [Robotron]
    • CP/L [Robotron]
    • CP/M [Digital Research]
    • CP/M 80 [Digital Research]
    • CP/Z [Robotron]
    • CPM-FDE [Robotron]
    • CSOC [Robotron]
    • CSOS [Robotron]
    • DAC [Robotron]
    • DataPac Multiuser DOS [DataPac]
    • DCP [Robotron]
    • DIP DOS [Atari]
    • doesmu
    • DOS Plus [Digital Research]
    • DOS-PSA [Robotron]
    • DR PalmDOS [Digital Research]
    • DR-DOS/OpenDOS [Digital Research]
    • FlexOS [Digital Research]
    • IMS Multiuser DOS
    • K8918-OS [Robotron]
    • MFA-CPA [Robotron]
    • MicroDOS [Robotron]
    • MicroOS
    • MP/M-80 [Digital Research]
    • MP/M-86 [Digital Research]
    • MS-DOS [Microsoft]
    • MSX-DOS [Microsoft]
    • OS/M [Robotron]
    • PD-DOS
    • QDOS/86-DOS [SCP]
    • S5-DOS/MT [Siemens]
    • SCP [Robotron]
    • SCP/M [Robotron]
    • SCP-IBE [Robotron]
    • TOS/M [Robotron]
    • Towns OS [Fujitsu]
    • Wendin-DOS [Wendin]
    • XDOS
    • Z-DOS [Microsoft]
  • Other DOS systems
    • Altair DOS [MITS]
    • AMSDOS [Amstrad]
    • ANDOS
    • AOS [Data General]
    • AOS/RT32 [Data General]
    • AOS/VS [Data General]
    • AOS/VS II [Data General]
    • Apple DOS [Apple]
    • Apple SOS [Apple]
    • Atari DOS [Atari]
    • Batch-11/DOS-11 [DEC]
    • BonnyDOS/286
    • CDOS [Cromemco]
    • CMB DOS [Commodore]
    • CSI-DOS
    • DG SOS [Data General]
    • DOS XL [Optimized Systems]
    • Embedded DOS [General Software]
    • GDOS [Miles Gordon Technology]
    • GS/OS [Apple]
    • HDOS [Heath Company]
    • ICOS
    • IS-DOS
    • MDOS/MIDAS [Microsoft]
    • MiniDOS
    • MK-DOS
    • MP/AOS [Data General]
    • MP/OS [Data General]
    • NewDOS/80 [Apparat]
    • Oric DOS [Tangerine]
    • Paragon DOS [Paragon]
    • PC-MOS/386 [Software Link]
    • ProDOS [Apple]
    • PTS-DOS [PhysTechSoft]
    • ROM-DOS [Datalight]
    • RxDOS
    • Sinclair QDOS
    • SMSQ/E
    • SpartaDOS X [ICD Inc]
    • SSB-DOS (Smoke Signal DOS) [TSC]
    • SuperDOS
    • TASiS
    • TR-DOS [Technology Research]
    • TRSDOS [Tandy]
    • TurboDOS [Software 2000]
  • RSX-11 or VMS-like
    • ArcaOS
    • DOS/RV (OCPBM) [Soviet Union]
    • eComStation [Serenity Systems]
    • FreeVMS
    • IAS [DEC]
    • Micro/RSX [DEC]
    • MicroVMS [DEC]
    • MOOS [Robotron]
    • OMOS [Robotron]
    • OS/2 [IBM/Microsoft]
    • OS/RW [Soviet Union]
    • osFree
    • PCVMS [Wendin]
    • ReactOS
    • RSX-11M [DEC]
    • RSX-11M+ [DEC]
    • RSX-11S [DEC]
    • RSX-15 [DEC]
    • RSX180
    • RSX-20F [DEC]
    • SM-EVM [Soviet Union]
    • VAX-11/VMS [DEC]
    • VAXELN [DEC]
    • Windows 10 Mobile [Microsoft]
    • Windows NT 3.x [Microsoft] and successor (up to Windows 10 today)
    • Windows Phone 8 [Microsoft]
    • Windows RT [Microsoft]
  • Other Microsoft systems
    • Midori
    • Pocket PC and Windows Mobile
    • Singularity
    • Windows CE
    • Windows Phone 7
  • AmigaOS-like
    • AROS
    • AspireOS
    • AtheOS
    • CDTV
    • BeOS [Be Inc]
    • MorphOS
    • NewOS
    • OpenBeOS
    • PhOS/PhosphurOS
    • pOS [ProDAD]
    • TripOS [Commodore]
    • VMWAros
  • RISC OS-like
    • Arthur [Acorn]
    • NCOS [Element 15]
    • RISC OS
  • Systems for IBM mainframes, by IBM
    • BOS/360 [IBM]
    • BSEPP (VM/BSE) [IBM]
    • CP/CMS [IBM]
    • CP-50/CP-67 [IBM]
    • CPF [IBM]
    • CTSS [IBM]
    • Fortran Monitor System (FMS) [IBM]
    • IBM 1410/7010 OS [IBM]
    • IBSYS [IBM]
    • IM/370 [IBM]
    • OS/400 [IBM]
    • OS/MVT [IBM]
    • OS/PCP [IBM]
    • SABER [IBM]
    • SABRE [IBM]
    • SEPP (VM/SE) [IBM]
    • SRTOS [IBM]
    • SSP [IBM]
    • TOS/360 [IBM]
    • TSS/360 [IBM]
    • VM/CMS [IBM]
    • VM/IS
    • VM/IX [Interactive/IBM]
    • VP/CSS [IBM]
  • Systems for IBM mainframes, not by IBM
    • BOS [Fujitsu]
    • BS3000 [Siemens]
    • DOS/ES [Robotron]
    • Edos [TSCS]
    • OS ES [Soviet Union]
    • OSIV/ESPIII [Fujitsu]
    • OSIV/F2 [Fujitsu]
    • OSIV/F4 [Fujitsu]
    • OSIV/X8 [Fujitsu]
    • OSIV/XSP [Fujitsu]
    • VOS2 [Hitachi]
  • L4 microkernel family
    • CodeZero
    • E1 Distributed OS
    • Fiasco
    • Fiasco.OC/L4Re
    • Gnuppix GNU/Hurd-L4
    • Iguana/Wombat OS
    • L2/Eumel
    • L4/Alpha
    • L4/MIPS
    • L4Ka::Pistachio (X.2)
    • NICTA::L4-embedded
    • NOVA
    • OKL4
    • Osker
    • P4
    • REX OS
    • seL4
    • TUD:OS
    • WrmOS
  • OSEK-compliant systems
    • ERIKA Enterprise
    • ERCOS [ETAS]
    • osCAN [Vector Informatik]
    • MICROSAR OS [Vector Informatik]
    • ProOSEK [3SOFT/Elektrobit]
    • ProOSEK/time [3SOFT Elektrobit]
    • RTA-OSEK [ETAS]
    • RTA-OS [ETAS]
    • tresos [3SOFT/Elektrobit]
    • TTP-OS [TTTech]
    • Arctic Core
    • FreeOSEK
    • nxtOSEK
    • ev3OSEK
    • openOSEK
    • TOPPERS-OSEK
    • Trampoline
    • OSEKturbo [Metrowerks]
    • Trioz OSEK RTOS [Trioztech]
    • PICOS18 [Pragmatic]
    • mKernel
  • Other systems and small families that don't fit in any of the other categories
    • (Open)Genera [Genera]
    • 3DS system software [Nintendo]
    • A/ROSE [Apple]
    • Accent (kernel)
    • Admiral
    • AL/1
    • Aleph (kernel)
    • AlliedWare [Allies Telesis]
    • AMBOSS [Siemens]
    • AMIGOD
    • Amoeba
    • AMOS [Alpha Microsystems]
    • AMOS 32 [Alpha Microsystems]
    • AMOS/L [Alpha Microsystems]
    • AN/FSQ-32
    • AOS [Burroughs]
    • Apache Mynewt
    • Apple II Pascal [Apple]
    • ARX [Acorn]
    • Atari TOS [Atari]
    • Atlas I Supervisor
    • AuraOS
    • AVM/EF [Fujitsu]
    • B1/B2/B3/B4 [NCR]
    • Baget RTOS (OS2000)
    • Banyan VINES [Banyan Systems]
    • BareMetal [Return Infinity]
    • Barrelfish [Microsoft]
    • Basic Executive System
    • Berkeley Timesharing System
    • BESYS [Bell Labs/AT&T]
    • BKY
    • BLIS/COBOL [Information Processing Inc]
    • Bluebottle
    • BOS1810 [Robotron]
    • brickOS
    • BROS [Robotron]
    • BS2000 [Siemens]
    • BS600 [Robotron]
    • BS-M [Siemens]
    • CAL
    • Cambridge CAP OS
    • Cambridge Ring
    • CapROS
    • CAPS-11 [DEC]
    • CAPS-8 [DEC]
    • CCOS [Corvus Systems]
    • ChibiOS/RT
    • Chios
    • Chippewa Operating System [Cray]
    • clix OS [iriver]
    • CNK OS [IBM]
    • Color BASIC [Microsoft]
    • CombOS [Trueb AG/Winter AG]
    • Contiki
    • Copland [Apple]
    • COQOS [OpenSynergy]
    • COS-310/350 [DEC]
    • Cosmos
    • Coyotos
    • CP-6 [Honeywell]
    • CPC-OS [Amstrad]
    • CPS (IBM Series/1) [IBM]
    • Cray Operating System [Cray]
    • Croquet
    • CSIRONET
    • CTOS [Convergent Technologies]
    • Dartmouth Time Sharing System (DTSS)
    • David [Microware]
    • DECtape Library System [DEC]
    • Deos [DDC-I]
    • DexOS
    • DIPOS [Nixdorf]
    • DiscOS
    • DMS (IBM 1130) [IBM]
    • DMS (IBM Series/3) [IBM]
    • DNOS [Dell]
    • DNOS [Texas Instruments]
    • DPCX (IBM 8100) [IBM]
    • DPPX (IBM 8100) [IBM]
    • Dragon Slayer
    • DRYOS [Canon]
    • DSi system software [Nintendo]
    • DSPnano RTOS [RowerBots]
    • DX10 [Texas Instruments]
    • DYSEAC
    • eCos
    • EDX (IBM Series/1) [IBM]
    • EIEX [Robotron]
    • Elbrus-1
    • EMAS
    • embOS [Segger]
    • EmuTOS
    • Enterprise OS [McDATA]
    • EOS [ETA Systems]
    • es [Nintendo]
    • ETOS
    • EUROS RTOS [EUROS]
    • EXEC [Unisys]
    • Exec 8 [Unisys]
    • Executive [ICL]
    • ExtremeWare [Extreme Networks]
    • Fabric OS [Brocade]
    • Fontac Monitor [Fujitsu]
    • FreeRTOS
    • Fuchsia [Google]
    • Future OS
    • Galileo [Acorn]
    • GAMMA-11 [DEC]
    • GECOS/GCOS [General Electric]
    • GeekOS
    • Genode
    • GEORGE [ICL]
    • GEOS [Berkeley Softworks]
    • Ghost OS
    • GMOS [General Motors]
    • Gnosis
    • HeartOS [DDC-I]
    • HelenOS
    • HEP/OS [Denelcor]
    • House
    • HP-1000/RTE [HP]
    • HT-11 [Heathkit]
    • Hurricane
    • HYDRA
    • IDA
    • IJMON [IBM]
    • ILIOS
    • IMOS [NCR]
    • INTEGRITY [Green Hills Software]
    • INTEGRITY-178B [Green Hills Software]
    • IOS [Cisco]
    • IronWare [Foundry Networks]
    • IS/M [Robotron]
    • ISIS [Intel]
    • ITOS [CTM Computer]
    • ITS
    • J Operating System/LoseThos
    • J/MultiJob [ICL]
    • JAMB [Robotron]
    • JavaOS [Sun Microsystems]
    • JNode
    • JX
    • K42 [IBM]
    • KDF9 Timesharing Director [English Electric]
    • KERNAL [Commodore]
    • KI-TELNEX
    • Kitten [Sandia]
    • KMON
    • KOBRA [Robotron]
    • KolibriOS
    • KRONOS [Control Data]
    • LAP6-DIAL
    • LCOS [Lancom Systems]
    • leJOS
    • LEO I OS [J. Lyons and Co.]
    • Lisa OS [Apple]
    • LOS 
    • LSE/OS
    • MACE [Control Data]
    • Machine Operating System (MOS) [Acorn]
    • Magic Cap [General Magic]
    • MAI Basic Four
    • MaRTE OS
    • MARTOS [AEG]
    • MARTOS-K [AEG]
    • MCP [Burroughs]
    • MDOS [Micropolis]
    • MenuetOS
    • MEOS [Robotron]
    • Michigan Terminal System (MTS)
    • Micro/RSTS [DEC]
    • MicroC/OS [Micrium]
    • MicroMore [Access]
    • MicroMPX [Encore]
    • micro-velOSity [Green Hills Software]
    • MikeOS
    • MonaOS
    • MPE-A [HP]
    • MPX (IBM 1800) [IBM]
    • MPX-32 [Systems Engineering Labs]
    • MS/8 [DEC]]
    • MULTI-8 [DEC]
    • MULTOS [DEC]
    • MultOS/8 [DEC]
    • MUMPS 
    • MUSIC/SP
    • MZOS [Micropolis]
    • Nanos
    • Nemesis
    • Netware [Novell]
    • Newton OS [Apple]
    • NLTSS
    • NonStop [Tandem]
    • NOS [Control Data]
    • Nucleus RTOS [Accelerated]
    • Nut/OS
    • Oberon
    • On Time RTOS-32 [On Time Informatik]
    • OpenCatamount [Sandia]
    • OpenComRTOS/Virtuoso Next [Altreonic]
    • OpenRTOS [Wittenstein]
    • ORVYL
    • OS/78 [DEC]
    • OS-9 RTOS [Microware]
    • OS-9000 [Microware]
    • OSC245 [Ferranti]
    • OSD/BC [Fujitsu]
    • OSD/XC [Fujitsu]
    • OSE & OS80 [ENEA AB]
    • Palm OS [Palm]
    • PANOS [Acorn]
    • PAPL [Robotron]
    • PBS (Plattenbetriebssystem) [Siemens]
    • PC-BLIS
    • PDP-1 OS [DEC]
    • PDP-6 Monitor [DEC]
    • PEARL Operating System (POS) [Brown, Boverie & Cie]
    • PenPoint OS [GO Corp]
    • PERQ [Three Rivers]
    • Phantom OS
    • Pick
    • PilOS
    • PlayStation Portable system software [Sony]
    • PlayStation Vita system software [Sony]
    • PRIMOS [Prime]
    • PS/8 [DEC]
    • pSOS [Software Components Group]
    • p-System
    • RACS
    • Rainbow
    • RBASIC [Robotron]
    • RC 4000 MS [Regnecentralen]
    • RIOT
    • RMOS [Siemens]
    • RMX/iRMX [Intel]
    • RockBox
    • RPS (IBM Series/1) [IBM]
    • RSTS-11 [DEC]
    • RT-11 [DEC]
    • RTEMS
    • RTMOS [General Electric]
    • RTOS-UH
    • RTXC Quadros
    • SafeRTOS [Wittenstein]
    • SAGE [IBM]
    • SCIOPTA RTOS
    • SCOMP [BAE Systems]
    • SCOPE [Control Data]
    • ScreenOS [Juniper]
    • SECOS
    • SEPIA [Kolter Electronic]
    • SeriX (IBM Series/1) [IBM]
    • SHARE Operating System (SOS)
    • Share/43 [Remington]
    • Share/7 [Remington]
    • SharpOS
    • SIBO OS [Psion]
    • Simultaneous Operating System (SIOS) [Control Data]
    • SINTRAN I [Norsk Data]
    • SIOS [Robotron]
    • SIPROS [Control Data]
    • SkyOS
    • S-OS
    • Spring [Sun Microsystems]
    • SPSYS
    • SRT8 [DEC]
    • STSS
    • SUNMOS [Sandia]
    • Switch system software [Nintendo]
    • SymbOS
    • Symobi [Miray Software]
    • SYSMIC [R2E]
    • SYS-PSA [Robotron]
    • Taligent [Apple]
    • Tape Director (WHIRLWIND I)
    • TCOS [T-Systems]
    • TDOS
    • TENEX [DEC]
    • THE multiprogramming system 
    • Thoth
    • ThreadX [Express Logic]
    • TiMOS [Alcatel-Lucent]
    • TinyOS
    • TI-RTOS [Texas Instruments]
    • Titan Supervisor
    • T-Kernel
    • TME [ICL]
    • TMX [NCR]
    • ToaruOS
    • Topaz/Taos
    • TOPS-20 [DEC]
    • TOPSY
    • Tornado
    • TriangleOS
    • TRON
    • TSOS [RCA]
    • TSS-8 [DEC]
    • TSX (IBM 1800) [IBM]
    • TSX-32 [S&H Computer Systems]
    • TX990/TXDS [Texas Instruments]
    • UDOS [Robotron]
    • UMES (University of Michigan Executive System)
    • Unison RTOS [RoweBots]
    • Urbit
    • V
    • Verex
    • VersaDOS
    • Viewpoint/GlobalView [Xerox]
    • Virtuoso RTOS
    • Visopsys
    • VM2000 [Siemens]
    • VME/B [ICL]
    • VME/K [ICL]
    • VRTX [Wind River Systems]
    • VRX [NCR]
    • VSOS [Wang]
    • VxWorks AE [Wind River Systems]
    • WAITS
    • Wii system software [Nintendo]
    • Wii U system software [Nintendo]
    • WMCS [WICAT]
    • WPS [Wang]
    • Xerox Alto OS [Xerox]
    • Zephyr [Wind River Systems]

Overview of Linux Desktop Environments (full list of desktops - 2020)

This table shows the various desktop environments that exist on Linux (as well as BSD and Illumos).

There are the Big 3 - Xfce, KDE, and Gnome - as well as some smaller ones and lots of forks and variants of the big ones.

Especially since the ill-arrived release of Gnome 3, there have been lots of variants and forks: Unity, Mate, Cinnamon, as well as Solus's Budgie, and elementaryOS's Pantheon. Unity has been dropped by Canonical and is now developed by the UBports community, renamed to Lorimi.

KDE only had one notable fork, Trinity, which is based on KDE 3.

Other notable desktop environments include LXQt (a merger of LXDE and Razor-qt), Deepin Desktop, Lumina, and Enlightenment and its fork Moksha.


Older version (2020): Download/Fullsize

Even older versions (2019):
Full List including minor and discontinued desktops: Download/Fullsize
List with only the major desktops: Download/Fullsize

The main currently active desktops are: Xfce, KDE Plasma 5, GNOME 3, MATE, Cinnamon, Pantheon, Deepin Desktop, Budgie, Enlightenment, LXQt, and Lumina.

The desktop environments I have included in the graph are:

  • Xfce-based
    • just Xfce!
  • KDE-based
    • KDE Plasma
    • Trinity (TDE)
    • Nomad
  • GNOME-based (lots of fragmentation since GNOME 3...)
    • GNOME
    • MATE
    • UKUI (Ubuntu Kylin UI)
    • Cinnamon
    • Pantheon
    • Manokwari
    • Budgie
    • Endless Shell
    • Lomiri (formerly Unity)
    • Regolith
  • Other
    • Enlightenment
    • Moksha
    • LXQt
    • Lumina
    • Deepin (DDE)
  • Legacy Unix DEs which are still (kind of) being developed
    • OpenWindows
    • Common Desktop Environment (CDE)
    • Maxx Interactive (IRIX Desktop)
  • Some early stage developments
    • Nextspace
    • Liri Shell
    • theShell
    • JADE
    • PearlDE
Not included in the graph:
  • Google
    • Android UI
    • Chromium OS/Chrome OS UI
  • Discontinued or dormant (last year of activity in brackets)
    • Maynard (2016)
    • Mezzo (2015)
    • Vera (2015)
    • Unix Desktop Environment (UDE) (2014)
    • Equinox (EDE) (2014)
    • Consort (2013) - GNOME-based
    • Etoile (2012)
    • ROX Desktop (2011)
    • Java Desktop System (2010) - GNOME-based
    • Kuartet (2006) - KDE-based



The picture below shows a timeline/family tree of Linux desktop environments:




Standard Desktop Environments for Linux and Unix (timeline)

The picture below shows the standard/default desktop environments used by the most popular Linux distributions and Unix systems, from 1990 to 2020.




Main Findings

  1. Many KDE distros died or switched to other desktops, while GNOME distros stayed loyal. MEPIS died in 2013 and it's de facto successor MX uses Xfce. Mandriva died in 2012 and its successor OpenMandriva did not manage to enjoy the same popularity and mindshare. Mageia, PCLinuxOS, and openSUSE have changed from KDE-default to desktop-agnostic. The commercial version, SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop, only offers GNOME. Compare 2004 and 2020: In 2007 the most important distributions were Red Hat/Fedora (GNOME), Debian (GNOME), Ubuntu (GNOME), openSUSE (KDE), Mandriva (KDE), PCLinuxOS (KDE), Slackware (KDE), and MEPIS (KDE). That's 3 points for GNOME and 5 points for KDE. In 2020 the most important distributions are Red Hat/Fedora (GNOME), Debian (GNOME), Ubuntu (GNOME), openSUSE (KDE/GNOME/Xfce), and Mint (Cinnamon/MATE/Xfce). That's 3⅓ points for GNOME, ⅔ for Xfce, and ⅓ each for KDE Plasma, Cinnamon, and MATE.
  2. "Newcomers" often use neither GNOME nor KDE. Examples: Mint (Cinnamon/MATE/Xfce with Cinnamon being dominant), Manjaro (Xfce dominant although KDE and GNOME are also offered), MX Linux (Xfce), and elementary (Pantheon).
  3. Virtually all commercial distributions use GNOME. Red Hat (RHEL, CentOS, Fedora) always used GNOME, because they are the main developers of GNOME in the first place. SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop only offers GNOME, unlike the agnostic openSUSE and KDE-only earlier versions of SuSE Linux. The last release of Mandriva, historically one of the most popular KDE distributions, was in 2012 as the company developing it went bankrupt. Canonical/Ubuntu stopped the development of its own desktop environment Unity and went back to GNOME in 2017. Oracle Solaris uses GNOME, while the open-source fork OpenIndiana switched over to MATE.
  4. The uprising against GNOME 3, released in 2011, has been quelled. Canonical gave up its development of the Ubuntu Unity desktop, and Debian, who pondered switching to Xfce, stayed with GNOME 3. Commercial distributions (RHEL, SLE, Solaris) have taken a long time but finally adopted GNOME 3 in 2018-19. However, a couple of distributions which developed their own desktop have not returned to GNOME, e.g. Mint or elementary. Furthermore, some distributions, such as SUSE Linux Enterprise, Ubuntu or Zorin OS, ship with modified versions of GNOME 3 with more classical interfaces.
  5. KDE seems to be more popular with Continental European developers and GNOME with Anglo-American developers. Most KDE distributions in the timeline graph are either German (Slackware, SUSE) or French (Mageia, (Open)Mandriva), and all GNOME distributions shown are from Anglophone countries (RHEL, CentOS, Fedora, Oracle, Debian, SUSE Linux Enterprise and Solaris from the US, and Ubuntu and Zorin OS from the British Isles).


Officially supported Desktop Environments by Distribution

Obviously, many distributions support more than just one desktop. An overview of who supports what can be found below:

 GNOMEXfce KDE
Plasma 
MATE LXQt/
LXDE 
Cinnamon Budgie Enlighten-
ment 
Deepin Pantheon UKUI Lumina Trinity Lomiri/
Unity 
CDE 
 LINUX
 Archyes yes yesyes yes yes yes yes yes yes 
 CentOSyes 
 Debianyes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes 
 elementary OSyes 
 Fedorayes yes yes yes yes yes 
 Gentooyes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes 
Knoppix yes yes yes 
 Mageiayes yes yes yes yes yes 
 Mintyes yes yes 
 MX Linuxyes 
 OpenMandrivayes 
 openSUSEyes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes 
 Oracle Linuxyes 
PCLinuxOS yes yes yes 
 RHELyes 
 Slackwareyes yes 
 SLEDyes 
 Ubuntuyes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes 
 Zorin OSyesyes 
UNIX - BSD 
 DragonFlyBSDyes yes yes yes yesyes 
FreeBSD yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes 
NetBSD yes yes yes yes yes yes yesyes 
 OpenBSDyes yes yes yes yes yes yes 
 UNIX - SYS V
AIX yes 
 HP-UXyes 
 Illumosyes yes yes 
 Solarisyes 

The total sum is 18 for GNOME and Xfce, 16 for KDE Plasma, 15 for MATE, 14 for LXQt/LXDE, 9 for Cinnamon, 8 for Enlightenment, 6 for Budgie, 5 for Lumina, 3 for Deepin DE and Pantheon, 2 for UKUI and CDE, and 1 for Trinity DE and Unity (now Lomiri). GNOME benefits from the fact that RHEL-based distributions (RHEL, CentOS, Oracle) now exclusively give official support to GNOME.

Criteria to choose the main Linux distributions

When creating the above picture, one question was which Linux distributions to include. For this, I created a "relevance score", calculated as follows:

  • Mix of Distrowatch visits/ranks, appearance in well-known lists of major distributions, and today's development status.
  • 25% weight: total visits on Distrowatch.com from 2002 to April 2020. This shows the long-term interest and "mindshare" (not market share) of the various distributions. Score 1.0 awarded to the most visited distribution of all times (vanilla Ubuntu, 11.4m visits) and the score for the other distributions was then calculated as a percentage of Ubuntu's visits.
  • 10% weight: average visits per year on Distrowatch.com (only considering years when the distribution was ranked in the top 100). This is beneficial for younger but very popular distributions. Score 1.0 awarded to the best performing distribution (Mint, 792,000 visits per year) and the score for the other distributions was then calculated as a percentage of Mint's visits per year. For some of the "meta-distributions" (e.g. all Ubuntu flavours) I have shown the weighted averages of the Distrowatch-listed Distributions (i.e. Ubuntu/Kubuntu/Lubuntu/Xubuntu etc).
  • 10% weight: number of years ranked in Top 10 on Distrowatch.com. This benefits distributions that consistently top the ranks. As my analysis covered 18 years, this would give a score of 1.0, 9 years in the top 10 would give a score of 0.5 and so on.
  • 5% weight: the distribution's current rank on Distrowatch.com. I took the last 12 months total as of late April 2020. Score 1.0 for Rank 1, Score 0.5 for Rank 51, Score 0.01 for Rank 100, Score 0.0 for all ranks below 100.
  • 15% weight: appearance in Distrowatch major distributions list. Score 1.0 for "Tier 1" distros, i.e. distros that have always been in the major distributions list since they were first listed; Score 0.67 for "Tier 2" distros, i.e. distros that have only recently been added to the list or that have been removed from the list at some point but are currently on it; Score 0.33 for "Tier 3" distros, i.e. distros that have been removed from the list but were listed in the past; Score 0.0 for distros that have never been listed.
  • 15% weight: appearance in LWN leading distributions list. Score 1.0 for "Tier 1" distros, i.e. distros that are listed as "leading"; Score 0.67 for "Tier 2" distros, i.e. distros that are listed as "well-known"; Score 0.33 for "Tier 3" distros, i.e. distros that have been removed from the list but were listed in the past; Score 0.0 for distros that have never been listed.
  • 15% weight: appearancec in Wikipedia's widely used distributions list. Score 1.0 for "Tier 1" distros, i.e. distros that have always been in the list since they were first listed; Score 0.67 for "Tier 2" distros, i.e. distros that have only recently been added to the list; Score 0.33 for "Tier 3" distros, i.e. distros that have been removed from the list but were listed in the past; Score 0.0 for distros that have never been listed.
  • 5% weight: Score 1 for active distributions, Score 0 for discontinued distributions.
  • Note that some commercial distributions (Chrome/Chromium OS, Android) and Unix systems (AIX, HP-UX, macOS) do not appear on Distrowatch and hence the score cannot be correctly calculated for them. I have decided to just include all surviving Unix systems.
  • I looked at all distributions that had at least 750,000 total visits on Distrowatch since 2002.
  • Cutoff point: a relevance score of 0.2.



Distribution
Status
Distrowatch total visits
01/2002-04/2020
Distrowatch average visits per year (2002-2019)
Distrowatch number of years in
Top 10
Current Distrowatch rank
(Apr-20 LTM)
In Distrowatch "Major Distributions" list?
In LWN.net "Leading Distributions" list?
Wikipedia EN "Widely used distributions"
Relevance Score
Ubuntu (all variants)
Active
20.7m
195k
15
5
Tier 1 (always listed)
Tier 1 (leading)
Tier 1 (always listed)
1.11
Ubuntu
Active
11.4m
669k
15
5
Tier 1 (always listed)
Tier 1 (leading)
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.97
Kubuntu
Active
2.1m
130k
-
39
-
-
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.26
Lubuntu
Active
2.0m
184k
-
27
-
-
Tier 2 (re-added)
0.22
Xubuntu
Active
1.8m
118k
-
36
-
-
Tier 2 (re-added)
0.20
Ubuntu Studio
Active
1.1m
78k
-
88
-
-
Tier 2 (newly added)
0.18
Ubuntu MATE
Active
0.8m
129k
-
44
-
-
Tier 2 (newly added)
0.18
Ubuntu Kylin
Active
0.5m
67k
-
30
-
-
Tier 2 (newly added)
0.17
Ubuntu GNOME
Discontinued
0.4m
110k
-
not ranked
-
-
-
0.02
Mythbuntu
Discontinued
0.3m
67k
-
not ranked
-
-
-
0.01
Ubuntu Budgie
Active
0.3m
64k
-
71
-
-
Tier 2 (newly added)
0.16
Edubuntu
Discontinued
0.1m
27k
-
not ranked
-
-
-
0.00
Red Hat (Fedora/RHEL/CentOS)
Active
13.7m
258k
23
8
Tier 1 (always listed)
Tier 1 (leading)
Tier 1 (always listed)
1.01
Fedora
Active
7.7m
451k
16
8
Tier 1 (always listed)
Tier 1 (leading)
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.86
CentOS
Active
3.9m
227k
5
14
Tier 1 (always listed)
Tier 2 (well-known)
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.63
Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Active
2.1m
111k
2
43
-
Tier 1 (leading)
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.45
Mint
Active
11.9m
792k
13
3
Tier 1 (always listed)
Tier 2 (well-known)
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.93
(open)SUSE
Active
8.3m
298k
17
13
Tier 1 (always listed)
Tier 1 (leading)
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.86
openSUSE (formerly SuSE Linux)
Active
8.1m
353k
17
13
Tier 1 (always listed)
Tier 1 (leading)
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.86
SUSE Linux Enterprise
Active
0.2m
41k
-
120
-
Tier 1 (leading)
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.36
Debian
Active
8.2m
431k
18
4
Tier 1 (always listed)
Tier 1 (leading)
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.88
PCLinuxOS
Active
5.1m
283k
9
17
Tier 3 (removed)
Tier 3 (removed)
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.54
Manjaro
Active
4.9m
543k
6
2
-
-
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.46
(Open)Mandriva
Active
4.4m
220k
10
49
Tier 3 (removed)
Tier 3 (removed)
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.51
OpenMandriva Lx
Active
0.5m
73k
-
49
-
-
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.25
Mandriva (formerly Mandrake)
Discontinued
3.9m
299k
10
not ranked
Tier 3 (removed)
Tier 3 (removed)
Tier 3 (removed)
0.33
Arch
Active
4.1m
216k
8
18
Tier 1 (always listed)
Tier 2 (well-known)
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.65
Puppy
Active
3.3m
183k
5
21
-
-
-
0.21
Slackware
Active
3.3m
173k
5
31
Tier 1 (always listed)
Tier 1 (leading)
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.66
Mageia
Active
3.1m
314k
4
26
Tier 3 (removed)
Tier 2 (well-known)
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.52
MX Linux
Active
3.0m
742k
2
1
Tier 2 (new addition)
-
-
0.37
FreeBSD
Active
2.8m
166k
-
22
Tier 1 (always listed)
-
-
0.32
elementary
Active
2.8m
348k
5
6
-
-
Tier 3 (removed)
0.28
Gentoo
Active
2.7m
144k
5
47
Tier 2 (re-added)
Tier 2 (well-known)
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.54
Zorin
Active
2.6m
240k
5
9
-
-
-
0.21
Knoppix
Active
2.6m
135k
3
52
Tier 3 (removed)
Tier 2 (well-known)
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.47
Sabayon
Active
2.6m
171k
4
92
-
-
-
0.16
MEPIS
Discontinued
2.4m
199k
4
not ranked
Tier 3 (removed)
Tier 3 (removed)
Tier 3 (removed)
0.25
TrueOS (formerly PC-BSD)
Active
1.9m
122k
-
not ranked
-
-
-
0.11
deepin (formerly Hiweed)
Active
1.7m
169k
1
10
-
-
-
0.16
Ultimate
Active
1.6m
123k
-
64
-
-
-
0.12
Vector
Discontinued
1.6m
97k
-
not ranked
-
Tier 3 (removed)
Tier 3 (removed)
0.15
Solus
Active
1.5m
255k
3
7
-
-
-
0.18
antiX
Active
1.5m
149k
-
11
-
-
-
0.15
Kali
Active
1.5m
182k
-
19
-
-
-
0.15
Damn Small
Discontinued
1.4m
173k
5
not ranked
-
-
Tier 3 (removed)
0.13
Bodhi
Active
1.4m
136k
-
58
-
-
-
0.12
Zenwalk
Active
1.3m
104k
-
128
-
-
-
0.09
Lite
Active
1.3m
156k
-
23
-
-
-
0.14
Antergos
Discontinued
1.2m
207k
-
not ranked
-
-
-
0.05
Peppermint
Active
1.2m
110k
-
24
-
-
-
0.13
Tiny Core
Active
1.2m
100k
-
69
-
-
-
0.11
LXLE
Active
1.1m
141k
-
56
-
-
-
0.12
Chakra
Active
1.1m
109k
-
not ranked
-
-
-
0.09
Tails
Active
1.1m
119k
-
29
-
-
-
0.13
Scientific
Discontinued
1.1m
75k
-
not ranked
-
Tier 2 (well-known)
Tier 3 (removed)
0.18
SparkyLinux
Active
1.0m
129k
-
25
-
-
-
0.13
Android
Active
1.0m
146k
-
41
-
Tier 1 (leading)
-
0.27
Slax
Active
1.0m
78k
-
86
-
-
-
0.09
CrunchBang
Discontinued
1.0m
169k
-
not ranked
-
-
-
0.04
ReactOS
Active
1.0m
143k
-
20
-
-
-
0.13
Elive
Active
1.0m
68k
-
72
-
-
-
0.10
ClearOS
Active
0.9m
77k
-
50
-
-
-
0.11
ArchBang
Active
0.9m
81k
-
55
-
-
-
0.11
OpenBSD
Active
0.9m
51k
-
77
-
-
-
0.09
DragonFly
Active
0.9m
51k
-
68
-
-
-
0.09
GhostBSD
Active
0.8m
77k
-
57
-
-
-
0.10
Netrunner
Active
0.8m
83k
-
60
-
-
-
0.10
Clonezilla
Active
0.8m
63k
-
85
-
-
-
0.09
Solaris
Active
0.8m
57k
-
148
-
-
-
0.07
Solaris
Active
0.6m
51k
-
148
-
-
-
0.07
OpenSolaris
Discontinued
0.2m
94k
-
not ranked
-
-
-
0.02
KDE neon
Active
0.8m
156k
-
12
-
-
-
0.13
Oracle Linux
Active
0.6m
58k
-
87
-
Tier 2 (well-known)
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.33
Chrome OS
Active
n/a
n/a
n/a
not ranked
-
-
Tier 1 (always listed)
0.20

Another finding: The most important Linux distributions are Ubuntu, Mint, Debian, openSUSE, and Fedora. There is a clear gap between these "Big 5" and the next biggest distributions (e.g. Slackware, Arch, CentOS).